Book of Mormon Timeline with Dates and Locations for Events

Book of Mormon Timeline with Dates and Locations for Events

Jaredite Locations and Events

~2200 to ~2500 BC   
The Jaredites, led by Jared and the Brother of Jared, departed from the Tower of Babel [which they called the great tower (Ether 1:3; 1:33) or just the tower (Ether 1:5)]. They left to migrate to "a land which is choice above all the lands of the earth" (Ether 1:38,42; Ether 2:7), and a land of promise (Ether 2:8-10) in the Americas, and in which they could serve the God of the land who is Jesus Christ (Ether 2:8-12). They built closed barges (Ether 2:16) which were miraculously lit by transparent shining stones (Ether 3:4), and set forth into the sea.
Ether 6:11-12 - And thus they were driven forth, three hundred and forty and four days upon the water. And they did land upon the shore of the promised land.
Ether 6:18 - And it came to pass that they began to spread upon the face of the land, and to multiply and to till the earth; and they did wax strong in the land.

The Jaredites first landed in a place the Nephites later called the land of Desolation (Alma 22:30). The land was not desolate (except that it did not contain much timber); but "because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate" by the Nephites (Helaman 3:6).
Still ~2200 to ~2500 BC   
After Jared's son Orihah was named king (Ether 6:27), and both Jared and his brother had died (Ether 6:29), Corihor rebelled against his father Kib the king (and son of Orihah). Corihor went to the land of Nehor (Ether 7:4); and after gathering strength he invaded the land of Moron where his father the king dwelt, taking Kib captive (Ether 7:5). The land of Moron was near the land which was later called Desolation by the Nephites (Ether 7:6).
Between ~2500 and ~279 BC   
For something like 2,000 years, the Jaredites alternately lived righteously and suffered rivalries between kingdoms; and they lived at times in prosperity and at other times in famine. They inhabited the land that the Nephites later called the land northward.
Ether 10:19-21 - Wherefore they did go into the land southward, to hunt food for the people of the land, for the land was covered with animals of the forest. ... And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land. And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
There are virtually no dates given in the Jaredite record.

Shortly before the time between ~279 and ~130 BC   
As the Jaredites descended into anarchy and wickedness, many prophets prophesied of the destruction of that great people unless they would repent and return to serving the Lord (Ether 11:1). The people rejected the prophets; and the prophets were put to death (Ether 11:5). Many more prophets came to warn the people that "the Lord would utterly destroy them from off the face of the earth except they repented of their iniquities" (Ether 11:12). The prophets were again rejected (Ether 11:13).
Ether 11:20-21 - And in the days of Coriantor there also came many prophets, and prophesied of great and marvelous things, and cried repentance unto the people, and except they should repent the Lord God would execute judgment against them to their utter destruction; And that the Lord God would send or bring forth another people to possess the land, by his power, after the manner by which he brought their fathers.
Ether 11:22-23 - And they did reject all the words of the prophets, because of their secret society and wicked abominations. And it came to pass that Coriantor begat Ether, and he [Coriantor] died, having dwelt in captivity all his days.

Ether prophesied many things concerning their history and the Americas; but his warnings were rejected.
Ether 13:2-4 - For behold, they rejected all the words of Ether; for he truly told them of all things, from the beginning of man; and that after the waters had receded from off the face of this land it became a choice land above all other lands, a chosen land of the Lord; wherefore the Lord would have that all men should serve him who dwell upon the face thereof; And that it was the place of the New Jerusalem, which should come down out of heaven, and the holy sanctuary of the Lord. Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning a New Jerusalem upon this land.

As the wars and insurrections raged on, Ether hid himself in a cave (Ether 13:13). In a short time, he was commanded (Ether 13:20) to go and prophesy to king Coriantumr, that if he would repent the Lord would spare his people.
Ether 13:21-22 - Otherwise they should be destroyed, and all his household save it were himself. And he should only live to see the fulfilling of the prophecies which had been spoken concerning another people receiving the land for their inheritance; and Coriantumr should receive a burial by them; and every soul should be destroyed save it were Coriantumr. And it came to pass that Coriantumr repented not, neither his household, neither the people; and the wars ceased not; and they sought to kill Ether, but he fled from before them and hid again in the cavity of the rock.
Ether 13:25 - Now there began to be a war upon all the face of the land, every man with his band fighting for that which he desired.

After many more battles, there were only two factions left.  Ether 14:20 - And they were divided; and a part of them fled to the army of Shiz, and a part of them fled to the army of Coriantumr.  Ether 14:28 - And they [the army of Shiz] pitched their tents in the valley of Corihor; and Coriantumr pitched his tents in the valley of Shurr. Now the valley of Shurr was near the hill Comnor; wherefore, Coriantumr did gather his armies together upon the hill Comnor, and did sound a trumpet unto the armies of Shiz to invite them forth to battle.

Coriantumr was wounded in that battle. Ultimately, he began to repent; but it was to no avail.
Ether 15:1-3 - And it came to pass when Coriantumr had recovered of his wounds, he began to remember the words which Ether had spoken unto him. He saw that there had been slain by the sword already nearly two millions of his people, and he began to sorrow in his heart; yea, there had been slain two millions of mighty men, and also their wives and their children. He began to repent of the evil which he had done; he began to remember the words which had been spoken by the mouth of all the prophets, and he saw them that they were fulfilled thus far, every whit; and his soul mourned and refused to be comforted.
Ether 15:8,10 - And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle. ... And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.

And the people and the army of Coriantumr gathered at the hill Ramah, which the Nephites called the hill Cumorah. And they prepared for a final battle with the people and the army of Shiz.
Ether 15:11 ff - And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.
13 And it came to pass that Ether did behold all the doings of the people; and he beheld that the people who were for Coriantumr were gathered together to the army of Coriantumr; and the people who were for Shiz were gathered together to the army of Shiz.

14 Wherefore, they were for the space of four years gathering together the people, that they might get all who were upon the face of the land, and that they might receive all the strength which it was possible that they could receive.

15 And it came to pass that when they were all gathered together, every one to the army which he would, with their wives and their children—both men, women and children being armed with weapons of war, having shields, and breastplates, and head-plates, and being clothed after the manner of war—they did march forth one against another to battle; and they fought all that day, and conquered not.

16 And it came to pass that when it was night they were weary, and retired to their camps; and after they had retired to their camps they took up a howling and a lamentation for the loss of the slain of their people; and so great were their cries, their howlings and lamentations, that they did rend the air exceedingly.

17 And it came to pass that on the morrow they did go again to battle, and great and terrible was that day; nevertheless, they conquered not, and when the night came again they did rend the air with their cries, and their howlings, and their mournings, for the loss of the slain of their people.

18 And it came to pass that Coriantumr wrote again an epistle unto Shiz, desiring that he would not come again to battle, but that he would take the kingdom, and spare the lives of the people.

19 But behold, the Spirit of the Lord had ceased striving with them, and Satan had full power over the hearts of the people; for they were given up unto the hardness of their hearts, and the blindness of their minds that they might be destroyed; wherefore they went again to battle.

20 And it came to pass that they fought all that day, and when the night came they slept upon their swords.

21 And on the morrow they fought even until the night came.

22 And when the night came they were drunken with anger, even as a man who is drunken with wine; and they slept again upon their swords.

23 And on the morrow they fought again; and when the night came they had all fallen by the sword save it were fifty and two of the people of Coriantumr, and sixty and nine of the people of Shiz.

24 And it came to pass that they slept upon their swords that night, and on the morrow they fought again, and they contended in their might with their swords and with their shields, all that day.

25 And when the night came there were thirty and two of the people of Shiz, and twenty and seven of the people of Coriantumr.

26 And it came to pass that they ate and slept, and prepared for death on the morrow. And they were large and mighty men as to the strength of men.

27 And it came to pass that they fought for the space of three hours, and they fainted with the loss of blood.

28 And it came to pass that when the men of Coriantumr had received sufficient strength that they could walk, they were about to flee for their lives; but behold, Shiz arose, and also his men, and he swore in his wrath that he would slay Coriantumr or he would perish by the sword.

29 Wherefore, he did pursue them, and on the morrow he did overtake them; and they fought again with the sword. And it came to pass that when they had all fallen by the sword, save it were Coriantumr and Shiz, behold Shiz had fainted with the loss of blood.

30 And it came to pass that when Coriantumr had leaned upon his sword, that he rested a little, he smote off the head of Shiz.

31 And it came to pass that after he had smitten off the head of Shiz, that Shiz raised up on his hands and fell; and after that he had struggled for breath, he died.

32 And it came to pass that Coriantumr fell to the earth, and became as if he had no life.

33 And the Lord spake unto Ether, and said unto him: Go forth. And he went forth, and beheld that the words of the Lord had all been fulfilled; and he finished his record; (and the hundredth part I have not written) and he hid them in a manner that the people of Limhi did find them.

Note that it was the people of Zarahemla who discovered Coriantumr and the stone mentioned in Omni 1:20 (in the days of Mosiah the 1st). [Note also that the discovery of Coriantumr shortly after the final destruction of the Jaredite nation may have taken place much earlier (perhaps around 550 BC), with only the report of that discovery being made during the days of Mosiah the 1st]. But it was the people of Limhi who discovered the plates of ore (Mosiah 21:25-27; ~122 BC) which Ether had written and hid in the land Desolation (Ether 15:33; following the Jaredite annihilation), and which were later translated into the Book of Ether by king Mosiah, son of king Benjamin (Mosiah 28:11).
Between ~279 and ~130 BC   
The people of Zarahemla found Coriantumr after the destruction of all the Jaredite nation. He lived with them just under a year, and they buried him, as Ether had prophesied. They found Coriantumr in the days of Mosiah the 1st.
Omni 1:20-22 - And it came to pass in the days of Mosiah, there was a large stone brought unto him with engravings on it; and he did interpret the engravings by the gift and power of God. And they gave an account of one Coriantumr, and the slain of his people. And Coriantumr was discovered by the people of Zarahemla; and he dwelt with them for the space of nine moons. It also spake a few words concerning his fathers. And his first parents came out from the tower, at the time the Lord confounded the language of the people; and the severity of the Lord fell upon them according to his judgments, which are just; and their bones lay scattered in the land northward.
Note that it was the people of Zarahemla who discovered Coriantumr and the stone mentioned in Omni 1:20 (in the days of Mosiah the 1st). [Note also that the discovery of Coriantumr shortly after the final destruction of the Jaredite nation may have taken place much earlier (perhaps around 550 BC), with only the report of that discovery being made during the days of Mosiah the 1st]. But it was the people of Limhi who discovered the plates of ore (Mosiah 21:25-27; ~122 BC) which Ether had written and hid in the land Desolation (Ether 15:33; following the Jaredite annihilation), and which were later translated into the Book of Ether by king Mosiah, son of king Benjamin (Mosiah 28:11). The Book of Ether contains the record of the Jaredite nation.

    Nephite and Lamanite Locations and Events

~600 BC   
Lehi and his family left Jerusalem in the old world, and started their journey to the land of promise in the Americas. This was at the commencement of the first year of the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah (1 Nephi 1:4; 2 Kings 24:17-18).

~591 BC   
The Mulekites fled Jerusalem in the old world about nine years after Lehi and his family left. This was about the time when King Zedekiah was carried captive into Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7). Their leader, Mulek, was the only surviving son of king Zedekiah (Helaman 8:21); and Zarahemla was a descendant of Mulek (Helaman 6:10; Mosiah 25:2). The Mulekites were known as the people of Zarahemla when the Nephites encountered them in that place sometime between ~420 and ~130 BC (see below). The Mulekites or People of Zarahemla did not bring or keep records; so we know them principally through the records of the Nephites.
~600 to ~589 BC   
Lehi and his family journeyed to the seashore, built a ship and sailed to the promised land (1 Nephi 2:2 through 1 Nephi 18:22).
~589 BC   
Lehi and his family arrived in the promised land. They later called their landing place the land of their fathers' first inheritance. (1 Nephi 18:23).
Between ~588 and ~560 BC   
Nephi, Zoram, Sam, Jacob and Joseph, with their wives and families and all those who would go with them, departed (2 Nephi 5:5) from Laman and Lemuel and those who stayed with them in the land of their fathers' first inheritance. And the people of Nephi journeyed in the wilderness for many days (2 Nephi 5:7). And they called the name of the place Nephi (2 Nephi 5:8) where they settled. They were some skirmishes with the Lamanites over the next decade (2 Nephi 5:34).
Between ~559 and ~545 BC   
In the land of Nephi, Jacob teaches the Nephites (2 Nephi 6-11) and Nephi prophesies and quotes to them from Isaiah, explaining some of Isaiah's teachings (2 Nephi 12-24). The wars with the Lamanites soon began, and continued apace (2 Nephi 5:14, Jacob 1:10, Enos 1:24).
Between ~544 and ~421 BC   
Still in the land of Nephi, Nephi died, and Jacob continued to teach the Nephites concerning pride, chastity and fidelity, hardness of heart, etc. Jacob also teaches and expounds the allegory of the tame and wild olive tree from the prophet Zenos (Jacob 5). Sherem came among the Nephites teaching apostate doctrine. He demanded a sign, was struck down, recovered long enough to confess that he had been deceived by Satan, and died (Jacob 7). Enos prayed all day long and into the night, was forgiven of his sins, and promised that the record would be preserved (Enos 1:16) for a future benefit to the Lamanites (and others, including us).
Between  ~420 and ~130 BC   
Both the Nephites and Lamanites were spread over much of the face of the land (Jarom 1:6,8). The Nephites had many seasons of peace and many seasons of serious war and bloodshed (Omni 1:3). Very sparse records were kept during this period.
Mosiah (the first) departed from the land of Nephi with his followers, and was led by the hand of the Lord to the land of Zarahemla (Omni 1:13-14), which was already populated by the people of Zarahemla. [The people of Zarahemla were also known as the Mulekites. They had fled Jerusalem in the old world about nine years after Lehi and his family left, at the time when King Zedekiah was carried captive into Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7). Mulek was the only surviving son of king Zedekiah (Helaman 8:21); and Zarahemla was a descendant of Mulek (Helaman 6:10; Mosiah 25:2)].

Mosiah and his followers and the people of Zarahemla united together in the land of Zarahemla, and Mosiah was named king (Omni 1:19). Thereafter, all were called Nephites.

In the land of Zarahemla King Benjamin succeeded Mosiah (the first) and drove the Lamanites out of the land of Zarahemla (Omni 1:23-24). [See the time between ~130 and -124 BC, below for a continuation of the activities of King Benjamin].

Between ~200 and ~122 BC   
The main body of the Nephites were still in the land of Zarahemla. The entries in this box deal with the people of Zeniff and their descendants.
Zeniff left the land of Zarahemla with a part of the people of Zarahemla who wanted to go with him. They went to the land of Lehi-Nephi in an over-zealous attempt to inherit the land of their fathers' first inheritance (Mosiah 9:1-3). [The Record of Zeniff is contained in Mosiah 9-22 as a flashback].

In the land of Lehi-Nephi, Zeniff and Lamanite king Laman agreed that Zeniff and his people could possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom (Mosiah 9:5-8). Zeniff, who had been made king over his people (Mosiah 9:14), took up residence in the city of Nephi (Mosiah 9:15).

In the land of Lehi-Nephi, the Lamanites came to battle with Zeniff and his people (Mosiah 9:14) after a dozen years of building and prosperity. Zeniff and his people prevailed over the Lamanites (Mosiah 9:18), and restored the peace for about two decades (Mosiah 10:5). Another war with the Lamanites ensued, and the people of Zeniff prevailed again (Mosiah 10:20).

In the land of Lehi-Nephi, king Zeniff conferred the kingdom [likely around ~160 BC] upon his son Noah (Mosiah 10:22).

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, king Noah became wicked (Mosiah 11:1-2). He replaced the priests that had been consecrated by his father, taxed his people heavily, building towers and buildings and vineyards (Mosiah 10:3-15), but, for a time, at least, winning local skirmishes with the Lamanites (Mosiah 10:18).

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, Abinadi came to warn the people and to prophesy that their enemies would overtake them unless they repented (Mosiah 11:20-21). The people and wicked king Noah rejected and burned Abinadi (Mosiah 11:26 to 18:20).

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, Alma (the elder), one of the priests of wicked king Noah, believed Abinadi, and escaped to the Forest and Waters of Mormon (Mosiah 18:4). Alma wrote the words of Abinadi (Mosiah 17:4), and taught them to others who believed, eventually gathering about 450 converts (Mosiah 18:35). Alma and his followers escaped into the wilderness from the searching army of wicked king Noah (Mosiah 18:34).

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, somewhere around ~145 BC, Alma and his people fled eight days' journey into the wilderness to a beautiful and pleasant land they called Helam where they prospered and built the city of Helam (Mosiah 23:3,19-20). Within a short time, however, the Lamanites (who had been joined by Amulon, leader of the exiled priests of wicked king Noah) came upon them, and took them into bondage (Mosiah 23:29). Amulon exercised authority over the people of Alma and persecuted them (Mosiah 24:8) for something like two decades; but the Lord promised the people of Alma that he would make their burdens light, and would deliver them from bondage (Mosiah 24:13-14). The Lord delivered them out of bondage by causing a deep sleep to come over their Lamanite guards in the night (Mosiah 24:19). The people of Alma escaped in one day to the Valley of Alma, and thence in twelve more days' journey, back to the land of Zarahemla (Mosiah 24:20,25; ~121 BC), see below.

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, in ~145 BC, the Lamanites drove out wicked king Noah, whereupon he was killed by his own people (Mosiah 19:20) and his priests escaped into exile (Mosiah 19:21). The Lamanites took captive many of Noah's followers including his son Limhi (Mosiah 19:16) and brought them back to the land of Lehi-Nephi (Mosiah 19:24).

Back in the  land of Lehi-Nephi, Limhi was made king of his captive people (Mosiah 19:26), managing to keep the peace for two years, but paying a heavy tribute to their Lamanite captors (Mosiah 19:26,29).

In Shemlon, between ~145 and ~123 BC, the escaped priests of wicked king Noah kidnapped 24 of the daughters of the Lamanites (Mosiah 20:5). The Lamanites came to war against the people of Limhi, thinking they were responsible for the kidnappings (Mosiah 20:7); but the Lamanites were pacified when Noah's priests were implicated (Mosiah 20:26).

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, the people of king Limhi were harassed by their Lamanite captors; and they made several unsuccessful attempts to drive the Lamanites away (Mosiah 21:8,11,12).

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, about ~122 BC, Limhi commissions a small expedition to locate the land of Zarahemla (Mosiah 21:25). They did not find it; but they did find the land of Desolation (Mosiah 21:26), and the record on plates of ore of the fallen Jaredite nation. [See the time shortly before the time between ~279 and ~130 in the table of dates for Jaredite Locations and Events, above, especially Ether 15:33. These plates of ore were the record which Ether wrote concerning the Jaredite nation. Ether hid them in a manner that the people of Limhi did find them (Ether 15:33).]

This expedition arrived back in the land of Lehi-Nephi not many days before the arrival of Ammon from the land of Zarahemla in ~121 BC (Mosiah 21:26), below.

Still in the land of Lehi-Nephi, Ammon and king Limhi develop a plan in ~121 BC  for the people of Limhi to escape from bondage by slipping out of the city of Nephi by night while the Lamanite guards were in a drunken stupor brought on by an extra ration of wine supplied by the people of Limhi (Mosiah 22:7). They went around the land of Shilom (Mosiah 22:8,11), and into the wilderness to the north. After many days, they arrived with their records in the land of Zarahemla, were greeted warmly by king Mosiah (son of king Benjamin) and became his subjects there (Mosiah 22:13-14).

Between ~130 and ~124 BC   
In the land of Zarahemla King Benjamin built a tower to teach the people (Mosiah 2:7), and to confirm the teachings concerning the atonement of the Savior (Mosiah 3). The result is a major conversion of all the people (Mosiah 5:2, 6:2).
King Benjamin consecrated his son Mosiah [the second; hereafter just Mosiah] as king (Mosiah 1:9-10; 6:3). There followed several years of peace (Mosiah 6:7).

~121 BC    In the land of Zarahemla, Mosiah commissioned a small expedition to the land of Lehi-Nephi led by Ammon, a descendant of Zarahemla (Mosiah 7:1-3). Ammon and his men were to search for a group (of the people of Zarahemla) led by Zeniff, who had gone from the land of Zarahemla up to the land of Lehi-Nephi about 75 years earlier. [The Record of Zeniff is contained in Mosiah 9-22 as a flashback. See the time between ~200 and ~122 BC, above]. Ammon found the people of Limhi (who were the descendants of the people of Zeniff) in bondage to the Lamanites in the land of Lehi-Nephi (Mosiah 7:7 {7:1-17 ff}). Ammon helped the people of Limhi to escape (Mosiah 22:7) and return to the land of Zarahemla (Mosiah 22:13-14). [See also note above].
Shortly after the return of the people of Limhi to the land of Zarahemla (Mosiah 22:13-14), the people of Alma (refugees from wicked king Noah in the land of Lehi-Nephi and in the Valley of Alma) also returned to the land of Zarahemla (Mosiah 24:25). The people of Zarahemla were gathered, and they listened to the separate records of Zeniff and Alma in the land of Lehi-Nephi (Mosiah 25:5-6). King Limhi and many of his people were baptized (Mosiah 25:17-18).

Between ~120 and ~91 BC   
In the land of Zarahemla, unbelievers arose among the younger generation (Mosiah 26:1) who had not been old enough to understand King Benjamin's speech (Mosiah 2:7; Mosiah 3 and 4).
Among the unbelievers were Alma the younger and the four sons of King Mosiah (Mosiah 27:8). They sought to destroy the church of God (Mosiah 27:10). One day as they were traveling, they were met and warned by an angel whose voice shook the ground (Mosiah 27:11). All were subsequently converted (Mosiah 27:24), and served as teachers and missionaries (Mosiah 27:32,34-35, Mosiah 28:1) both to the Nephites in the land of Zarahemla, and to the Lamanites in  the land of Lehi-Nephi.

King Mosiah translated the plates made by Ether of the migration and fall of the Jaredite nation (Mosiah 28:11). [See the table of Jaredite Locations and Events, above].

Still in the land of Zarahemla [in ~92 BC], king Mosiah was aging, and none of his sons was willing to become king. He therefore recommended that the Nephite people be ruled by elected judges (Mosiah 29:11, {Mosiah 29:1-38}) after his death.

Still in the land of Zarahemla [in ~91 BC], the voice of the people came in favor of rule by judges, and they elected judges (Mosiah 29:39). And Alma the younger who was the high priest, was elected the first chief judge (Mosiah 29:42). Alma 50:39 records the sacred ordinance and oath of office that Judges were required to take: "Nephihah was appointed to fill the judgment-seat, ... with an oath and sacred ordinance to judge righteously, and to keep the peace and the freedom of the people, and to grant unto them their sacred privileges to worship the Lord their God, yea, to support and maintain the cause of God all his days, and to bring the wicked to justice according to their crime."
Between ~91 and ~76 BC   
Still in the land of Zarahemla within about five years of the beginning of the rule of Judges [~87 BC], one Amlici sought to be named king (Alma 2:2). He had many followers, so they held a referendum, and the voice of the people came against Amlici and in favor of continuing the rule of the Judges (Alma 2:7). Upon losing the referendum, Amlici and his people came against the others to battle on the hill Amnihu (Alma 2:15), and later near Minon where the Amlicites had joined the Lamanites. In the battle, Alma slew Amlici (Alma 2:31), and the Nephites drove the Amlicites into the Wilderness of Hermounts, where many more died (Alma 2:37-38), and their cause was defeated. Other battles with the Lamanites ensued (Alma 3:20) in which the Nephites were victorious (Alma 3:23), but many lives were lost.

Still in the land of Zarahemla, in the 8th year of the Judges [~84 BC], pride and contention arose among the prosperous Nephites (Alma 4:6-9). This convinced Alma to resign the judgment-seat so he could concentrate on his duties as high priest, and warn the people against iniquity (Alma 4:19). Nephihah was elected chief judge in his stead (Alma 4:16-18). Alma made this change at the beginning of the 9th year of the Judges (Alma 4:20; ~83 BC), and started his teaching in the city of Zarahemla.

Alma then traveled from the city of Zarahemla to the Valley and City Gideon (Alma 6:7) to preach to the people there, and has good success (Alma 7:19). From there he went the following year [~82 BC] to Melek, having more success (Alma 8:5).

Alma then [still ~82 BC] went north to the city of Ammonihah (Alma 8:6). But the people at Ammonihah rejected him and his message, and cast him out (Alma 8:13). An angel asked him to return and to ask Amulek (a resident of Ammonihah) to help him (Alma 8:14-21). Amulek had been prepared with a similar message, also from an angel (Alma 8:20). Alma and Amulek preached to the people of Ammonihah. They had great powers given to them (Alma 8:31); but they were again rejected and baited (Alma 10:16). They encountered Zeezrom, a lawyer, who contended with them (Alma 11:21), but his lies were revealed (Alma 11:25), and he began to see his errors (Alma 11:46). The people of Ammonihah condemned any who believed Alma and Amulek to the flames at the Place of Martyrdom (Alma 14:8). Alma and Amulek were cast into prison (Alma 14:17), where they were badly mistreated (Alma 14:21-22). Finally, after all the leaders, priests and judges had mistreated them, Alma rose up and called upon the Lord to deliver them (Alma 14:26). The earth shook, and the walls of the prison collapsed, slaying all within except Alma and Amulek (Alma 14:27-28). Zeezrom was healed and baptized at Sidom with many others (Alma 15:3,12). Alma and Amulek returned from Sidom to the city of Zarahemla where Alma lived (Alma 15:18).

Though there was peace in the land of Zarahemla, in ~81 BC, the Lamanites attacked and destroyed the city of Ammonihah in a single day (Alma 16:3,9-10), and took many captives from the region (Alma 16:4). Zoram was appointed to recover the captives, and with the help of the Lord, knew to meet the Lamanites near Manti (Alma 16:6), where he recovered all the captives (Alma 16:8).

Over the next few years [until ~78 BC], Alma, Amulek and others preached to the Nephites in the land of Zarahemla (Alma 16:15).
Meanwhile [also ~91 to ~78 BC], while Alma had been defeating the Amlicites and teaching the Nephites in the land of Zarahemla (Alma 2-16, ~87 to ~78 BC, immediately above), Ammon (one of the four sons of king Mosiah) had traveled to the land of Nephi to be among the Lamanites as a missionary (Alma 17:8). There, entering the land of Ishmael (Alma 17:19), Ammon encountered the Lamanite king Lamoni (Alma 17:20-21). Ammon was entrusted to watch the king's sheep (Alma 17:25), protected them by cutting off the arms of a band of Lamanite rustlers (Alma 17:37) at the waters of Sebus, and was subsequently instrumental in the teaching (Alma 18:24-36) and conversion of Lamanite king Lamoni and many of his people (Alma 19). These converts became known as the people of Ammon. [The record of Ammon in the land of Ishmael is contained in Alma 17-20 as a flashback].
Meanwhile [also ~91 to ~78 BC], while Ammon was converting the people of Lamanite king Lamoni the land of Ishmael (immediately above), Aaron and Muloki, also sons of king Mosiah, traveled as missionaries to the lands of Jerusalem, Ani-Anti and Middoni (Alma 21:4,11-12). They were rejected in all those places (Alma 21:8,12), and imprisoned in the land of Middoni (Alma 21:13). They were delivered from prison in the land of Middoni when Ammon and king Lamoni came to liberate them (Alma 20, Alma 21:14). Aaron and his brethren then traveled to the land of Nephi to the house of Lamoni's father, who was the Lamanite king over all the land of Nephi (Alma 22:1). Aaron taught the king (Alma 22:12), and his people (Alma 22:26), converting many (Alma 23:4,6) in the land of Ishmael, the land of Middoni, the city of Nephi, the land of Shilom, the land of Shemlon, the city of Lemuel and the city of Shimnilom (Alma 23:8-12).
These Lamanite people named themselves (Alma 23:17) the Anti-Nephi-Lehies (later, the people of Ammon, Alma 27:26), and became ardent pacifists (Alma 24:6). In jeopardy of destruction because they would not fight back (Alma 27:4), the people of Ammon relocated to the land of Zarahemla. There they became friendly with the Nephites (Alma 24:8), and were given the land of Jershon (Alma 27:22) where they were ever faithful (Alma 27:27), and where the Nephite army would protect them (Alma 27:23). By ~74 BC, they relocated again to the land of Melek (Alma 35:12) for greater security. [The record of Aaron and Muloki in the lands of Jerusalem, Ani-Anti and Middoni, etc., is contained in Alma 21-26 as a flashback].
Between ~74 and ~71 BC   
In the land of Zarahemla, Korihor the anti-Christ came to preach (Alma 30:6), demanded a sign from Alma (Alma 30:43), was struck dumb, recognized his errors (Alma 30:52), went among the Zoramites at Antionum (Alma 31:3), and there he died (Alma 30:59).
In the land of Antionum Alma went (Alma 31:7) to teach among the apostate Nephites who called themselves Zoramites (Alma 31:3). There he taught on the nearby hill Onidah (Alma 32:4) about faith and spiritual development, and comparing the word unto a seed. He had some success there (Alma 32:2) among the poor Zoramites (see note at Alma 32:4 in the land of Antionum). These poor Zoramites relocated to the land of Jershon (Alma 35:9) where they were received and protected by the people of Ammon. This infuriated the other Zoramites (Alma 35:10), so the people of Ammon relocated to land of Melek (Alma 35:13) for their security in ~73 BC.

Back in the land of Zarahemla [in ~73 BC; the 19th year of the Judges] the apostate Nephite Amalickiah came to prominence among the Nephites (Alma 45:18; Alma 46:33), desiring to be king (Alma 46:4). Moroni responded with his Title of Liberty (Alma 46:13) rending his coat, and comparing it to a remnant of the coat of Joseph who was sold into Egypt anciently (Alma 46:23-27). Moroni refers to the Nephite followers of Christ as Christians: the first such reference in the Book of Mormon. Amalickiah and his supporters fled south toward the land of Nephi (Alma 46:29); but most were caught by Moroni and returned to the land of Zarahemla (Alma 36:33). The rebellion was suppressed for the moment.

In the land of Nephi [in ~72 BC], Amalickiah, who had escaped, stirred up the Lamanites to go to war with the Nephites (Alma 47:1). Through treachery, fraud and deceit Amalickiah took over the Lamanite army and the kingdom of the Lamanites (Alma 47:5,18-19,24,35). He then conspired to make war against the Nephites (Alma 48:3). When his army was formed, he marched toward the Nephite settlements in the land of Zarahemla (Alma 48:6). When his Lamanite army came to attack the previously weak (Alma 49:6; Alma 25:2) city of Ammonihah (Alma 49:1), they were astonished at its heavy fortifications (Alma 49:5); so they marched on to the land of Noah (Alma 49:12) thinking it might be the next best place to wage war against the Nephites (Alma 49:12-13). But Moroni had anticipated these moves; and the Lamanite army was astonished to learn that Noah had even better fortifications than Ammonihah (Alma 49:14), AND it was defended by Lehi of whom the Lamanite army was very fearful (Alma 49:17). In the battle for Noah, the Lamanites lost over 1,000 soldiers and all their leaders (Alma 49:23), whereas the Nephites suffered only ~50 wounded (Alma 49:24). The Lamanite army returned to the land of Nephi after that defeat.

In the broader land of Zarahemla, during ~72 and ~71 BC, Moroni caused all their cities to be fortified (Alma 50:1-6); and during this time of security, happiness and prosperity (Alma 50:17,23) they inhabited the east wilderness (Alma 50:9) and set the foundations of the new eastern cities of Moroni, Nephihah and Lehi (Alma 50:13-15).
Between ~70 and ~56 BC   
The Nephites in the broader land of Zarahemla were at peace until the contention concerning the land of Morianton and the land of Lehi (Alma 50:25, in ~68 BC), which was quelled by Teancum (Alma 50:35).
In the land of Zarahemla in ~68 BC, Pahoran was elected chief judge (Alma 50:39-40); and the following year [~67 BC] the king-men faction wanted to eliminate the judges and return to rule by a king. A referendum was held on the matter, and the voice of the people came in favor of the freemen, who wanted to retain the rule of the judges (Alma 51:7).

Meanwhile, the apostate Nephite Amalickiah had refurbished his army of Lamanites (see above) and came down (Alma 51:12, in ~67 BC) with his army against the Nephites. The king-men took this as an opportunity to become instant pacifists, refusing to fight for their country (Alma 51:13). Moroni responded, with authority from the voice of the people (Alma 51:15), to compel the king-men to arms, or be slain. "And thus Moroni put an end to those king-men" (Alma 51:21). While this insurrection was being quelled, Amalickiah overran the city of Moroni (Alma 51:23). And because of the distraction (Alma 60:16), Amalickiah also overran the eastern cities of Nephihah, Lehi, Morianton, Omner, Gid, and Mulek (Alma 51:26). Fortunately, Teancum met and repelled his army as they approached the land Bountiful (Alma 51:28-30). Teancum slew Amalickiah after the ensuing battle (Alma 51:33-34, on the last day of ~67 BC); and on the morning of the first day of ~66 BC the army of Amalickiah (then under the direction of the brother of Amalickiah, whose name was Ammoron) retreated to their fortifications in the city of Mulek (Alma 52:2-3). Ammoron subsequently escaped from the city of Mulek and the land of Zarahemla to gather a new Lamanite army, and to march it forth against the Nephites near the west sea (Alma 52:12).

[ASIDE: It is interesting that it is during this very time of civil unrest among the Nephites (when they are at their weakest defensively) that their strongest commanders (Lehi, Moroni, Helaman and Teancum) emerge as military leaders. It is also during this time that the 2,000 stripling warriors (later augmented to 2,060) come to the fore and aid in the defense of the Nephites.]

Teancum besieged the city of Mulek (Alma 52:6) while he awaited reinforcements and assistance from Moroni, who was tied up with the attacks of Ammoron in the west (Alma 52:11, ~66 BC).
In ~65 BC, having secured the west (Alma 52:15), Moroni marched his army to the land Bountiful, from whence he could help Teancum retake Mulek, if possible (Alma 52:16).

In ~64 BC, Moroni and Teancum liberated the city of Mulek by decoy (Alma 52:24), slew the Lamanite leader Jacob in battle, and took prisoners of most of his army (Alma 52:40). Meanwhile, the Lamanites gained some ground on the west and southwest because of dissentions among the Nephites there (Alma 53:8-9).

Because of the growing threat of the Lamanites in ~66 to ~64 BC, the sons of the pacifist people of Ammon called themselves Nephites, armed themselves for battle (Alma 53:16:17) and drafted Helaman to be their leader (Alma 53:19{10-23}, Alma 56:5). They became known as the 2,000 stripling warriors (Alma 53:22). In the West Wilderness and at Cumeni, they contributed significantly to the battle of the West Wilderness and the battle of Cumeni; and they were all preserved from death in both battles.

In ~63 BC  Moroni liberated the Nephite prisoners from the city of Gid by stratagem (Alma 55:23{3-27}); and later that year prepared to attack the city of Morianton (Alma 54:33).

In ~62 BC, Helaman reported to Moroni of his earlier successes with the 2,000 stripling warriors against the Lamanites in the West Wilderness, north of the city of Antiparah, and near the city of Judea where they had gone to assist Antipus (Alma 56:9). The Lamanites, under the leadership of the apostate Nephite Ammoron (Alma 56:20) had already captured the cities of Manti, Zeezrom, Cumeni and Antiparah (Alma 56:14). Helaman and Antipus decoyed the strongest Lamanite army out of their stronghold of Antiparah (Alma 56:34-36), and defeated them in the West Wilderness (Alma 56:54), though Antipus was slain in the battle (Alma 56:51). Not a single one of the 2,000 stripling warriors was killed (Alma 56:56), though some were wounded. The Lamanites fled the city of Antiparah; and it fell into Nephite hands (Alma 57:4), as did the city of Cumeni (Alma 57:12), which they retook after a counter-attack (Alma 57:23), along with the city of Manti (Alma 58:21). [The record of Helaman's exploits with the 2,000 stripling warriors in the city of Judea, and the cities of Manti, Zeezrom, Cumeni and Antiparah, etc., is contained in Alma 56-58 as a flashback in a letter to Moroni. In the West Wilderness and at Cumeni, they contributed significantly to the battle of the West Wilderness and the battle of Cumeni; and they were all preserved from death in both battles.]

In ~62 BC, Moroni wrote to the land of Zarahemla to chief judge Pahoran twice asking for better support of Helaman's and his own war efforts (Alma 59:3, Alma 60). He learned that Pahoran has been deposed and exiled by Pachus (the leader of a revived group of king-men) to the land of Gideon (Alma 61:5). Moroni raised his standard of liberty (Alma 62:4) and gathered an army to reinstate Pahoran (Alma 62:5) and the freedom of the Nephites (Alma 62:8, in ~61 BC). Moroni and Pahoran then liberated the city of Nephihah (Alma 62:14-26), the city of Lehi (Alma 62:30-31), other cities (Alma 62:32) and the city of Moroni (Alma 62:38).

In ~61 BC, Lamanite king Ammoron (brother of Lamanite king Amalickiah--see above) was slain by Teancum in the Land of Moroni. Ammoron's death brought to an end a decade (~72 BC, Alma 47:35 to ~61 BC, Alma 62:36) during which the Lamanites had subjected themselves to kings and military leaders who were apostate Nephites.(!) This was a particularly difficult time for the Nephites because the Lamanite leaders--especially field commanders (Alma 48:5)--were familiar with Nephite fortifications, defense methods, training routines, weaknesses, etc. Fortunately, the Nephites had very good military leadership during this period: Moroni, Lehi and Teancum (Alma 62:34), all formidable commanders whom the Lamanites feared (Alma 49:17).

In ~60 BC, Moroni retired to his home in the city of Zarahemla (Alma 62:42-43), Pahoran returned to his judgment-seat (Alma 62:44), and Helaman went to preach the word of God to the Nephite people (Alma 62:45). There was peace among the Nephites until ~57 BC when Helaman died. Moroni died the following year [~56 BC].

Between ~55 and ~54 BC   
A great many people (5,400 men with their wives and children, and later others) migrated from the greater land of Zarahemla into the land northward (Alma 63:4). Hagoth's ships were also launched containing many more men with their wives and children; and the first ship sailed to the land northward from the west coast of the narrow neck of land (Alma 63:5).
Between ~52 and ~31 BC   
The main setting for the book of Helaman is in the land of Zarahemla, from which there were many migrations into the land northward (Helaman 3:3). In the land of Zarahemla, in ~52 BC, Kishkumen murdered the chief judge Pahoran, who was the son of Pahoran (Helaman 1:9). This was the beginnings of the Gadianton Robbers (Helaman 6:18; see also the note at the city of Kishkumen).

In the land of Zarahemla, in ~51 BC, Coriantumr, a dissident former Nephite [and not the last surviving Jaredite of the same name (Omni 1:21-22)] led a Lamanite army (Helaman 1:15-16) into the center of the Nephite land of Zarahemla, and easily took possession of the city of Zarahemla (Helaman 1:18-20). But he hadn't read his military history, because he then pressed on in his greed to capture also the city Bountiful (Helaman 1:23). He was met by Lehi's army on that march, and by Moronihah's army in his rear as he tried to retreat to the city of Zarahemla. His army was defeated, and Coriantumr was slain (Helaman 1:32). Moronihah then retook the city of Zarahemla restoring peace (Helaman 1:33).

In the land of Zarahemla, in ~50 BC, Kishkumen attempted to murder Helaman on his judgment-seat (Helaman 2:2-3), but was slain in the attempt (Helaman 2:9). Gadianton then took over leadership of what became the Gadianton robbers (Helaman 6:18), and they fled into the wilderness (Helaman 2:11).

In the land of Zarahemla, in ~49 through ~46 BC, there was an uneasy peace, and some internal dissention. During that time a great many Nephites departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and migrated to the land northward (Helaman 3:3). Many of the people of Ammon (former Lamanites) also migrated to the land northward (Helaman 3:12). The uneasy peace with its great deal of internal dissention (Helaman 3:19) lasted a few more years until some of the dissention abated by ~43 BC resulting in greater prosperity and spiritual enlightenment (Helaman 3:26). By ~39 BC, when Helaman died and his son Nephi was elected to fill the judgment-seat, pride and more dissention had again crept into their midst (Helaman 3:36-37).

By ~34 BC, with the help of Nephite dissenters, the Lamanites came down and captured most of the land of Zarahemla. Moronihah and his army defended the land Bountiful, and by ~31 BC they had regained about half of these cities (Helaman 4:10).

Between ~30 and ~21 BC   
In ~30 BC, Nephi gave up the judgment-seat and with his brother Lehi preached throughout the cities Bountiful, Gid and Mulek (Helaman 5:16), and from there to the land of Zarahemla, among the Lamanites (Helaman 5:16) with much success, including some 8,000 converts (Helaman 5:19).
Lehi and Nephi went from there to preach to the Lamanites in the land of Nephi where they were imprisoned in Shilom (Helaman 5:21) where Ammon was imprisoned nearly ~100 years earlier (Mosiah 7:7; ~121 BC). When their captors came to slay them, Lehi and Nephi were given great power to withstand them, being encircled with fire, etc., (Helaman 5:23 ff). The result was the conversion of ~300 souls (Helaman 5:49), who in turn converted most of the Lamanites in the land of Nephi (Helaman 5:50) by the end of ~29 BC. The converted Lamanites gave back all the cities in the land of Zarahemla which they had conquered (Helaman 5:52). Peace and harmony between the Lamanites and the Nephites reigned until about ~27 BC (Helaman 6:1-14).

In ~26 and ~25 BC, the Nephites began to set their hearts upon their riches, and became wicked again (Helaman 6:17), being led by the Gadianton robbers (Helaman 6:26, 6:39). By ~24 BC, most of the Nephites had turned to wickedness (Helaman 6:34) They combined with the Gadianton robbers to take over the sole management of the government (Helaman 6:39), and to fill the judgment-seats (Helaman 7:4). The Lamanites remained for the most part righteous, and were able to destroy the Gadianton robbers from among them (Helaman 6:37).

In the land of Zarahemla, in ~23 BC, Nephi returned from preaching in the land northward (Helaman 7:1), prayed in his garden (in the city of Zarahemla) and preached concerning the wickedness of the Nephites (Helaman 7:10). He was accused of being complicit in a murder he had prophesied (Helaman 8:27; 9:16); but he was later exonerated (Helaman 9:36-38). Nephi was again blessed with great power (Helaman 10:5-10), and spent the next few years in the ministry (Helaman 10:12).
Between ~20 and ~7 BC 
In the greater land of Zarahemla, between ~20 and ~16 BC, there was much war and wickedness (Helaman 11:1-2). And then there came a famine instead at Nephi's request (Helaman 11:4). The Nephites began to repent, and in ~16 BC the famine was turned away, and rain came (Helaman 11:17), again at Nephi's request (Helaman 11:10-16).
In the land of Zarahemla, between ~16 and ~14 BC, the Nephites were more righteous and prosperous (Helaman 11:20-21). But by ~12 BC the dissenters were at war with the Nephites again (Helaman 11:24). By ~7 BC there was much wickedness among the  Nephites (Helaman 11:37:38).

In ~6 BC the Nephites remained in their wickedness, but the Lamanites kept the commandments according to the law of Moses (Helaman 13:1).
Between ~6 and ~2 BC  
In the land of Zarahemla, in ~6 BC, one Samuel, a Lamanite, came among the Nephites to preach repentance (Helaman 13:2) and to prophesy (Helaman 13:13 ff); but he was rejected.
From atop the walls of the city of Zarahemla Samuel prophesied of the Savior's birth in Jerusalem in 5 years (Helaman 14:2), along with the signs of both His birth (Helaman 14:3-8, 14:12-13) and His death in Jerusalem (Helaman 14:14:14-28).  Samuel prophesied of the ultimate fates of the Nephites and the Lamanites (Helaman 15).  Some Nephites repented and were converted; most did not (Helaman 16:1-2).
Righteousness generally declined over the following 5 years (Helaman 16:10-25). Even though there were many signs, prophesies, miracles and wonders (Helaman 16:23), Satan stirred them up to iniquity continually (Helaman 16:22).
Between ~1 and ~33 AD  
In the greater land of Zarahemla, in ~1 AD, the unbelievers set a date when they would put to death all the believers if Samuel's sign [a day and a night and a day without darkness - Helaman 14:4] of Christ's birth had not been seen by then (3 Nephi 1:9).
In the land of Zarahemla, the believers' spiritual leader, Nephi, son of Nephi, son of Helaman, went to pray about the impending destruction, and was answered that on that night would the sign be given (3 Nephi 1:13) and the Savior would be born on the morrow (in Bethlehem near Jerusalem). And "at the going down of the sun there was no darkness; ..." (3 Nephi 1:15). Later, "... there was no darkness in all that night, but it was as light as though it was mid-day. And it came to pass that the sun did rise in the morning again, according to its proper order; and they knew that it was the day that the Lord should be born, because of the sign which had been given" (3 Nephi 1:19), and a new star did appear (3 Nephi 1:21).

After the sign was given, and a majority of the people had been converted (3 Nephi 1:22), there was peace and harmony for a few years; but soon [~5 AD] they again began to dwindle in unbelief (3 Nephi 2:1), and to wax strong in wickedness and abominations (3 Nephi 2:3).

In the land of Zarahemla, in ~8 or ~9 AD, the Nephites changed their reckoning of time to measure from the time when the sign was given of the birth of the Savior (3 Nephi 2:8).  In the land of Zarahemla, by  ~15 AD, there was virtually continuous warfare between the Nephites and the Gadianton robbers (3 Nephi 2:11-19) in which many battles were won by the robbers.  During the next several years, the Nephites prepared for a great battle with the robbers of Gadianton (3 Nephi 3:1-12) under the direction of Lachoneus and Gidgiddoni. They gathered with all their substance (~17 AD; 3 Nephi 3:12-22) to their place of security in the area around and between the land of Zarahemla, the land Bountiful and south of the land Desolation (3 Nephi 3:23). [They gathered both from the land northward and the land southward to which they returned ~9 years later (3 Nephi 6:2)].

By the end of ~18 AD, the robbers began to attack their place of security at its borders (3 Nephi 4:1). But because the Nephites had left the land around it empty of crops, flocks and herds (3 Nephi 4:3-5), there was no wherewithal for the robber armies' subsistence in battle. Even when not fighting, the Gadianton robbers subsisted by plunder of the Nephites (3 Nephi 2:11), an option no longer available to them. Therefore, in the middle of ~19 AD the robbers started a ferocious battle (3 Nephi 4:7) in the Nephites' place of security. In this battle there was a greater slaughter on both sides than in any battle since ~600 BC when Lehi left Jerusalem (3 Nephi 4:11); but in this battle the robbers lost, and their leader was slain.

By ~21 AD the robbers again tried to lay siege around the Nephites' place of security, but they had to withdraw for want of provisions (3 Nephi 4:18-19,22). They wanted to retreat to the land northward (3 Nephi 4:23); but the Nephites anticipated it, and by strategy caught them both in their front and in their rear as they marched (3 Nephi 4:25), defeating the robbers summarily (3 Nephi 5:6) and slaying their leader. The Nephites then lived in peace and righteousness from ~21 through ~25 AD (3 Nephi 5:3-7).

In ~26 AD the Nephites returned from their place of security to their own lands in the greater land of Zarahemla and both in the land northward and the land southward (3 Nephi 6:1-2).

But by ~29 AD some disputations arose (3 Nephi 6:10), including pride and distinction by ranks according to their riches and chances for learning (3 Nephi 6:12). By ~30 AD, Satan had stirred them up to all manner of iniquity (3 Nephi 6:15-16). By ~31 AD, many prophets came to warn the Nephites of the need for repentance (3 Nephi 6:20). Some of these prophets were secretly executed (3 Nephi 6:23), the chief judge was murdered, judgment by rule of law disintegrated (3 Nephi 6:28-30) and the reigns of the Judges came to a close (3 Nephi 7:1-3,6). With the destruction of the government through secret combinations, the people regulated their affairs by dividing into tribes (3 Nephi 7:2-3,6).

Before the end of ~30 AD, the most wicked faction elected one Jacob to be their king (3 Nephi 7:10), and departed for the northernmost part of the land (3 Nephi 7:12). Although Nephi ministered powerfully among the tribes (3 Nephi 7:18-21), few were converted. During ~32 and ~33 AD a few more converts were made (3 Nephi 7:23-26). This period between ~30 and ~33 AD was the same period of Christ's ministry among the Jews around Jerusalem. There are some parallels between the power and levels of acceptance of Nephi's teachings and those of Christ (3 Nephi 7).

~34 AD    In the first month of ~34 AD (the month we call April) many began to look for the sign (three days of darkness) that Samuel had prophesied would come (Helaman 14:14-28) when the Savior was crucified at Jerusalem (3 Nephi 8:3).  On the fourth day of that month there arose a great storm and tempest (3 Nephi 8:5). There was such destruction (3 Nephi 8:8-10) that the city of Zarahemla took fire; the city of Moroni sank in the depths of the sea; a mountain covered the city of Moronihah; and there was great and terrible destruction in the land southward and in the land northward, and the whole face of the land was changed (3 Nephi 8:11-12). During about three hours (3 Nephi 8:19) great destruction reigned.

The destruction was followed by thick darkness (3 Nephi 8:20-22) in which no fire or light could be lit, and some were overcome by it (3 Nephi 10:13). It lasted for three days (3 Nephi 8:23).

All the people of the land then heard the voice of the Savior (3 Nephi 9:1-2) inviting them to repentance, and explaining that many cities [Zarahemla, Moroni, Moronihah, Gilgal, Onihah, Mocum, Jerusalem, Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, Gimgimno, Jacobugath, Laman, Josh, Gad and Kishkumen - 3 Nephi 9:3-10] had been destroyed so that the blood of the prophets and saints would no more come to Him against them. The whole face of the land had been changed (3 Nephi 8:12), the face of the whole earth became deformed (3 Nephi 8:17), and some of the shorelines were changed (4 Nephi 1:9).

The voice of the Savior explained that some had been spared because they were more righteous than those who had been destroyed (3 Nephi 9:13), and inviting them to repent, be converted and be healed (3 Nephi 9:14). The voice then stopped, and silence reigned for many hours (3 Nephi 10:1). The voice of the Savior then resumed (3 Nephi 10:3), inviting the people to repent and return to Him with full purpose of heart (3 Nephi 10:6). And the darkness dispersed (3 Nephi 10:9).

Later in ~34 AD (perhaps nearer the end of that year - 3 Nephi 10:18), as the people were gathered at the temple in the land Bountiful, a voice from heaven was again heard (3 Nephi 11:1-3). Initially they could not understand the voice (3 Nephi 11:3-4); but the third time, they heard it, saying, "Behold my Beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased, in whom I have glorified my name—hear ye him." (3 Nephi 11:7).

3 Nephi 11:8-10 - And it came to pass, as they understood they cast their eyes up again towards heaven; and behold, they saw a Man descending out of heaven; and he was clothed in a white robe; and he came down and stood in the midst of them; and the eyes of the whole multitude were turned upon him, and they durst not open their mouths, even one to another, and wist not what it meant, for they thought it was an angel that had appeared unto them. And it came to pass that he stretched forth his hand and spake unto the people, saying: Behold, I am Jesus Christ, whom the prophets testified shall come into the world.
The Savior then invited them to come forth and feel the nail prints in his hands and feet that they  might know he was the God of Israel who had been slain for the sins of the world
(3 Nephi 11:14). The Savior then ordained Nephi, giving him power to baptize (3 Nephi 11:21-22); and He called twelve others and likewise gave them power to baptize. And the Savior taught the multitude His doctrine (3 Nephi 11:23 ff), including the beatitudes (3 Nephi 12), etc., (compare Matthew 5-7).

After a lengthy sermon, the Savior invited the people to return home, to pray unto the Father for help in understanding all His words, and to return on the morrow for more instruction (3 Nephi 17:3). But before He left, He invited them to bring all their sick, lame, blind, halt, maimed, leprous, withered, deaf, dumb or who were afflicted an any manner (3 Nephi 17:7,9) to Him, and He would heal them. When all of that was done, He commanded that their little children should be brought to Him (3 Nephi 17:11) for a blessing. Great manifestations from heaven ensued, including angels from heaven administering to the children (3 Nephi 17:24).

After the blessing of the children, the Savior administered bread and wine to the multitude (3 Nephi 18:3-9). After more instruction concerning the sacrament, about prayer and other conduct (3 Nephi 18:10-25), and after further instruction and giving the twelve disciples power to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost upon those who were baptized (3 Nephi 18:26-37), the Savior ascended into heaven in a cloud.

That night all in the region were alerted concerning the return of the Savior the next day (3 Nephi 19:3) at the temple in the land Bountiful. And the next day when He came, Nephi baptized the twelve who were chosen to  minister to the people (3 Nephi 19:12), the Holy Ghost fell upon them (3 Nephi 19:13-14), and there was a great outpouring of prayer (3 Nephi 19:18-35).

Following the prayers, bread and wine were miraculously provided, and the sacrament was administered to the multitude (3 Nephi 20:3-7). The Savior reminded them that they were descendants of Joseph of old [who was sold into Egypt (Genesis 37:28; 3 Nephi 20:16,22)]; and He gave them much further instruction in gospel-centered living (3 Nephi 20-28), quoting Isaiah, Malachi and other ancient prophtes. He taught them for three days; and after that He showed Himself unto them often, and broke bread with them (3 Nephi 26:13). And then He departed.
Between ~35 and ~321 AD 
By ~35 and ~36 AD in all the lands [both in the land northward and in the land southward] the Nephites were all converted and lived in righteousness and prosperity (4 Nephi 1:1-2).
4 Nephi 1:2-3 - And it came to pass in the thirty and sixth year, the people were all converted unto the Lord, upon all the face of the land, both Nephites and Lamanites, and there were no contentions and disputations among them, and every man did deal justly one with another. And they had all things common among them; therefore there were not rich and poor, bond and free, but they were all made free, and partakers of the heavenly gift.
During ~38 AD the disciples of Jesus wrought great works among the Nephites (4 Nephi 1:5).
4 Nephi 1:5 - And there were great and marvelous works wrought by the disciples of Jesus, insomuch that they did heal the sick, and raise the dead, and cause the lame to walk, and the blind to receive their sight, and the deaf to hear; and all manner of miracles did they work among the children of men; and in nothing did they work miracles save it were in the name of Jesus.
By ~110 AD they still lived in peace and prosperity (4 Nephi 1:14).
4 Nephi 1:15-18 - And it came to pass that there was no contention in the land, because of the love of God which did dwell in the hearts of the people. And there were no envyings, nor strifes, nor tumults, nor whoredoms, nor lyings, nor murders, nor any manner of lasciviousness; and surely there could not be a happier people among all the people who had been created by the hand of God. There were no robbers, nor murderers, neither were there Lamanites, nor any manner of -ites; but they were in one, the children of Christ, and heirs to the kingdom of God. And how blessed were they! For the Lord did bless them in all their doings; yea, even they were blessed and prospered until an hundred and ten years had passed away; and the first generation from Christ had passed away, and there was no contention in all the land.
~194 AD a few had revolted from the church and called themselves Lamanites (4 Nephi 1:20).
By ~201 AD a few more became lifted up in pride (4 Nephi 1:24), they no longer kept their goods in common (4 Nephi 1:25), they began to be divided by classes (4 Nephi 1:26), etc., and by ~210 AD there were many churches and great wickedness because Satan got a firm hold on their hearts (4 Nephi 1:28).

By ~244 AD there were quite a few more wicked people than true believers (4 Nephi 1:40).

By ~260 AD the dissenters began again to build up the secret oaths and combinations of Gadianton (4 Nephi 1:42).

By ~300 AD virtually the entire population was mired in wickedness (4 Nephi 1:45).

By ~320 AD Ammaron hid the record [in the land Antum at the hill Shim, near the city of Jashon (Mormon 2:17)] to preserve it for future generations, including us in our time (4 Nephi 1:48, 49).

Between  ~322 and ~384 AD
In ~322 AD, Mormon, as a ten-year-old (likely in the land northward), was commanded by Ammoron to remember the things he observed among the Nephites during the next 14 years, and write them on plates he would find in the land Antum at the hill Shim when he reached age 24 (Mormon 1:3-4). A little later, Mormon's father carried Mormon (likely from the land northward) into the land southward and to the land of Zarahemla (Mormon 1:6).

In the land southward in ~322 AD there were battles with the Lamanites at a location between the city of Zarahemla and the river Sidon. These battles were won by the Nephites, and for about four years there was an uneasy peace (Mormon 1:12).

In the land southward in ~326 AD Mormon (as a 16-year-old) led the Nephite armies; but they were frightened into a retreat toward the north (Mormon 2:3) and west toward the sea. The Nephites were driven out of the city of Angola and the city of David; but by ~330 AD they defeated the Lamanites at Joshua by the west seashore (Mormon 2:4-9).

By ~345 AD, the Nephites were again in retreat before the Gadianton and Lamanite armies, moving farther to the north; and the Nephites were not able to stop the Lamanite thrust until they got to the city of Jashon (Mormon 2:16), which was near Antum and the hill Shim (Mormon 2:17) in the land northward where Ammoron had hidden the plates in ~320 AD.

In the land northward in ~346 AD the Nephites had retreated further to the city of Shem (Mormon 2:20) where they fortified the city to meet the Gadianton and Lamanite armies (Mormon 2:21). In the subsequent battles, the Nephites beat the Lamanites, and drove them southward until, by ~350 AD they were able to make a treaty with the Lamanites regarding a division of the lands (Mormon 2:28).

Mormon 2:29  - And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites all the land southward.
In the land northward for the next decade, Mormon tried in vain to convince the Nephites to repent of their wickedness (Mormon 3:3). By ~360 AD they had fortified the narrow pass against the Lamanites (Mormon 3:5-6). As a result, the Nephites repelled Lamanite attacks in ~361 and ~362 AD (Mormon 3:7-8). But they began to boast improperly about their victories, so Mormon resigned as their military leader (Mormon 3:11).
In the land northward between ~363 and ~367 AD there were many battles near the cities of Desolation and Teancum, and near the Narrow Pass in which the Nephites ultimately prevailed (Mormon 4:15), even though they continued in their wickedness (Mormon 4:11), greater wickeness, in fact, than any among the house of Israel previously (Mormon 4:12).

In ~375 AD the Lamanites came down against them in strength (Mormon 4:17).

Mormon 4:18 - And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
In the land northward after the Lamanites took the city and land Desolation, and the city of Boaz (Mormon 4:19-20), Mormon could see they were going to overthrow the land, so he retrieved all the records from the hill Shim (Mormon 4:23).
In the land northward shortly after ~375 AD, Mormon relented and was again given command of the Nephite armies (Mormon 5:1). The Nephites then retreated to the city of Jordan (Mormon 5:3). And although they retained some cities (Mormon 5:4), the Lamanites sacked and burned many others (Mormon 5:5) by ~379 AD.

In the land northward in ~380 AD a great battle began, in which the Lamanites swept the Nephites before them (Mormon 5:6). Mormon saw that the Nephites' cause was all but lost (Mormon 5:7).

Mormon 5:18-19 - But now, behold, they are led about by Satan, even as chaff is driven before the wind, or as a vessel is tossed about upon the waves, without sail or anchor, or without anything wherewith to steer her; and even as she is, so are they. And behold, the Lord hath reserved their blessings, which they might have received in the land, for the Gentiles who shall possess the land.
In the land northward just before ~385 AD, Mormon arranged with the Lamanites for a great final battle in the land of Cumorah by the hill Cumorah (Mormon 6:2).
~385 AD    In the land northward in ~385 AD, the Nephites gathered to the hill Cumorah for the battle to their destruction against the Lamanites (Mormon 6:4-5).
Still in the land northward Mormon, being old, and knowing it to be their last battle, hid the plates in the hill Cumorah, leaving only the last few to his son Moroni to finish (Mormon 6:6). With dread he and something like a quarter of a million of his soldiers plus their families awaited the onslaught of an innumerable company of the Lamanites (my emphasis):

Mormon 6:7-22 - And it came to pass that my people, with their wives and their children, did now behold the armies of the Lamanites marching towards them; and with that awful fear of death which fills the breasts of all the wicked, did they await to receive them.
8 And it came to pass that they came to battle against us, and every soul was filled with terror because of the greatness of their numbers.
9 And it came to pass that they did fall upon my people with the sword, and with the bow, and with the arrow, and with the ax, and with all manner of weapons of war.
10 And it came to pass that my men were hewn down, yea, even my ten thousand who were with me, and I fell wounded in the midst; and they passed by me that they did not put an end to my life.
11 And when they had gone through and hewn down all my people save it were twenty and four of us, (among whom was my son Moroni) and we having survived the dead of our people, did behold on the morrow, when the Lamanites had returned unto their camps, from the top of the hill Cumorah, the ten thousand of my people who were hewn down, being led in the front by me.
12 And we also beheld the ten thousand of my people who were led by my son Moroni.
13 And behold, the ten thousand of Gidgiddonah had fallen, and he also in the midst.
14 And Lamah had fallen with his ten thousand; and Gilgal had fallen with his ten thousand; and Limhah had fallen with his ten thousand; and Jeneum had fallen with his ten thousand; and Cumenihah, and Moronihah, and Antionum, and Shiblom, and Shem, and Josh, had fallen with their ten thousand each.
15 And it came to pass that there were ten more who did fall by the sword, with their ten thousand each; yea, even all my people, save it were those twenty and four who were with me, and also a few who had escaped into the south countries, and a few who had deserted over unto the Lamanites, had fallen; and their flesh, and bones, and blood lay upon the face of the earth, being left by the hands of those who slew them to molder upon the land, and to crumble and to return to their mother earth.
16 And my soul was rent with anguish, because of the slain of my people, and I cried:
17 O ye fair ones, how could ye have departed from the ways of the Lord! O ye fair ones, how could ye have rejected that Jesus, who stood with open arms to receive you!
18 Behold, if ye had not done this, ye would not have fallen. But behold, ye are fallen, and I mourn your loss.
19 O ye fair sons and daughters, ye fathers and mothers, ye husbands and wives, ye fair ones, how is it that ye could have fallen!
20 But behold, ye are gone, and my sorrows cannot bring your return.
21 And the day soon cometh that your mortal must put on immortality, and these bodies which are now moldering in corruption must soon become incorruptible bodies; and then ye must stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, to be judged according to your works; and if it so be that ye are righteous, then are ye blessed with your fathers who have gone before you.
22 O that ye had repented before this great destruction had come upon you. But behold, ye are gone, and the Father, yea, the Eternal Father of heaven, knoweth your state; and he doeth with you according to his justice and mercy.

Between ~386 and ~421 AD
By ~401 AD, Moroni reported that his father Mormon had been killed, and that he alone had been left alive to finish and preserve the record while hiding from the Lamanites (Mormon 8:1-6). He gave us his final testimony of the Savior and of the value of righteous living (Mormon 9); he abridged the record of the Jaredites (Moroni 1:1; see also Jaredite Locations and Events, above) to include it (as the Book of Ether); and he closed his record.
By ~421 AD, Moroni, having thought he would be long dead (Moroni 1:4), added a few more words of encouragement and information (Moroni 2-10), including specifically for readers in our day:

Moroni 10:3-4 - Behold, I would exhort you that when ye shall read these things, if it be wisdom in God that ye should read them, that ye would remember how merciful the Lord hath been unto the children of men, from the creation of Adam even down until the time that ye shall receive these things, and ponder it in your hearts. And when ye shall receive these things, I would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will manifest the truth of it unto you, by the power of the Holy Ghost.
He also included some letters from his Father Mormon from before his death (Moroni 7-9); and he closed and buried the completed record:

Moroni 10:34 - And now I bid unto all, farewell. I soon go to rest in the paradise of God, until my spirit and body shall again reunite, and I am brought forth triumphant through the air, to meet you before the pleasing bar of the great Jehovah, the Eternal Judge of both quick and dead. Amen.