“ED” in the 1842 ”Times and Seasons”


“ED” in the 1842 ”Times and Seasons”

by Gregory L. Smith

Some have wondered who wrote the articles signed “-ED” during Joseph Smith’s tenure as editor of the Times and Seasons (T&S). I have some old notes on this matter, and I thought a brief review of its history would be helpful (or at least potentially make my amassed research notes on this topic of some value to someone). Except where indicated, my source for dates and names is an article by Andrew Jensen.[1]
Scanning these publications visually is eye-tiring work–if I have missed something, I welcome additions, deletions, or corrections. I found this an interesting forensic exercise–who was “ED”?
Who is “ED”?
This timeline is a first stab at answering this question; it is hardly a definitive, exhaustive analysis. But, what I’ve seen so far leads me to draw some preliminary conclusions:
1) Obviously, this is the editor. And, for a period of time, the only person listed as Editor was Joseph Smith. He was so announced at the end of every edition of the T&S. Many of the topics treated by “ED” are religious and doctrinal–”ED” has no hesitation about establishing doctrine for the Saints. I can detect no sign of “ED” deferring to anyone, including Joseph himself.
2) Other writers and leaders have certainly understood Joseph to be “ED.” Many of “ED”‘s editorials appear in the History of the Church (though without the “ED” designation reproduced), and some of the doctrinal sermons have been included in such books as Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith.
3) With Joseph’s retirement, “ED” is absent for a few issues, and then appears intermittently. The new “ED” usage tends more to short asides, and it is relatively rare for ED to sign an “editorial” or discourse post-Joseph Smith than during Joseph’s tenure as editor. One rare post-Joseph example that I’ve found so far is 1 Feb 1843.
4) Even after being appointed editor, but before Joseph’s death, John Taylor was endorsing Stephens’ works as the best external Book of Mormon proof (1 Oct 1843), claiming Stephens placed Mesoamerican cities in the right location as well. It is difficult to argue, then, that Joseph knew better by revelation. If so, we must accept all of the following premises:
a) Despite having revelation, Joseph didn’t bother to correct Elder Taylor’s two previous writings on the subject printed while Joseph was editor (15 September 1842, 1 October 1842);
b) “ED” is not Joseph Smith;
c) Joseph also didn’t bother to correct whoever “ED” was (if not himself) who wrote two articles on the subject (15 June 1842, 15 July 1842);
d) Joseph made Elder Taylor editor (while knowing about the problems in [a] and [c] above);
e) Joseph did nothing while Elder Taylor again went down the wrong path while chief editor (1 October 1843);
f) Brigham Young and other leaders were likewise unaware and did nothing when Elder Taylor made the same mistake yet again after Joseph’s murder ().
All this seems a great deal of supposition, and totally out of character for Joseph Smith and John Taylor. And, as we’ve seen, the identification of “ED” as anyone but Joseph has very little support.
4) Finally as a subjective thing, “ED’s” voice sounds different to me from unsigned articles, and once Joseph leaves. Your mileage may vary. :-)
In short, I can find no evidence that anyone has considered “ED” to be someone other than Joseph Smith during this period, or a persuasive pattern of use which would allow me to conclude that “ED” was some kind of “composite” authorial voice during Joseph’s tenure as editor of the T&S.
From what I can see, while editor, Joseph rarely if ever signed his writing as “Joseph Smith” unless he was reproducing a letter or document written for a venue or audience outside his newspaper. I would welcome counter-examples or other data from interested readers.
In sum, any theory which requires us to presume that “ED” is not Joseph Smith is on shaky ground. I don’t think it’s enough to claim that it was absolutely, always Joseph–but, those who want to claim that “ED” is never Joseph have a pretty high bar to clear if they want to make that case.
Specific examples can be found below in the timeline. As I said, this is a preliminary collection, so if readers note an incident I’ve missed, please let me know and I’ll update this file. You might even get credit. :-)
(Footnotes are numbered in the order I entered them.)
Spring 1839
“messengers were sent from Commerce back to Far West, Missouri, where they, in Brother Dawson’s yard, dug up the type which had been used for the publication of the “Elders Journal” the previous year, and brought the material to Commerce, where a printing press was put up in the basement of a building, and the publication of “The Times and Seasons” commenced.”
The first publishers of the T&S were Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith, brother of the prophet.
November 1839 (1/1)
First number of the Times and Seasons printed. “Each number of the paper consisted of 16 large octavo pages, the printing matter on each page measuring 4 1/4 by 8 inches.”
1 Dec 1840
Partnership with Ebenzer Robinson and Don Carlos Smith was dissolved; Don Carlos becomes sole editor.
May 1841
Robert B. Thompson becomes Don Carlos Smith’s partner in T&S publishing.[55]
7 August 1841
Don Carlos Smith dies.
16 August 1841 (Times and Seasons 2/20)
Ebenezer Robinson (who had been partners with Don Carlos Smith earlier) rejoined the T&S, publishing one number of the paper with Thompson. Thompson was to die 20 days after Don Carlos.
27 August 1841
Robert B. Thompson dies. [55] This leaves Ebenezer Robinson in sole charge of the T&S. He publishes nine issues of the paper. Gustavus Hills begins working with Robinson at the press (Hills was a self-described “Professor of Music,” and stocked music books in the print shop’s books for sale section.)[10]
20 November 1841
Seven of the Twelve Apostles met in council at the house of President Young, on the subject of the Times and Seasons; they not being satisfied with the manner in which Gustavus Hills had conducted the editorial department since the death of Robert B. Thompson.[8]
30 November 1841
It was voted that Ebenezer Robinson be solicited to give up the department of printing the Times and Seasons to Elder Willard Richards.
Voted, that if Brother Robinson does not comply with this solicitation, Elder Richards be instructed to procure a press and type, and publish a paper for the Church.
Moved by Elder Young, and seconded by Elder Woodruff, that Lyman Wight and John Taylor present these resolutions to Brother Robinson.
The Twelve and Joseph presented Robinson with an ultimatum–either he should sell the paper to them, or they would start their own.
1 January 1842 (T&S 3/5)
Several of the Twelve spent the day at Sylvester B. Stoddard’s and in the city council, which lasted from 6 p.m. until midnight, on the trial of Gustavus Hills.[9]
Hills was part of John C. Bennett’s practice of illegitimate plural marriage. In August 1842 he was disfellowshipped; he confessed to impregnating a woman he had seduced, and paid money toward the child’s support. [11]
15 January 1842 (T&T 3/6)
Gustavus Hills is announced as assistant editor in the T&S. [7] It is apparent from the discussion among the Twelve (and Joseph, at some meetings) in November 1841 that Hills was already having some informal input into the paper’s contents before this date.
17 January 1842
Nauvoo high council “were unanimously opposed to Robinson’s publishing the Book of Mormon and other books.”[12]
28 January 1842
Joseph receives a revelation (not in the D&C):
Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph, go and say unto the Twelve, that it is my will to have them take in hand the editorial department of the Times and Seasons, according to that manifestation which shall be given unto them by the power of my Holy Spirit in the midst of their counsel, saith the Lord. Amen.[15]
3 February 1842
“Elder Woodruff took the superintendence of the printing office, and Elder Taylor the editorial department of the Times and Seasons; and he commenced by taking an inventory of the establishment this day.”[16]
4 February 1842
Joseph “closed a contract with Ebenezer Robinson for the printing office…also the paper fixtures, bookbindery, and stereotype foundry, by proxy, namely, Willard Richards, cost between 7,000 and 8,000 dollars.”[13] The price was considered high, but Brigham Young noted, “The reason I paid such a price was [because] the Prophet directed the Twelve to pay him whatever he asked.”[14]
1 March 1842 (T&S 3/9)
Book of Abraham begins publication in T&S.
2 March 1842
Joseph takes over as editor of the T&S: “I read the proof of the Times and Seasons, as editor for the first time, No. 9, Vol. III.”[2]
9 March 1842
“Examining copy for the Times and Seasons, presented by Messrs. Taylor and Bennett….”[17]
15 March 1842 (T&S 3/9-10)
Formal announcement (see 2 March for him proofing this edition) Joseph announces that he is taking over as editor from Robinson and Hills:
This paper commences my editorial career, I alone stand for it, and shall do for all papers having my signature henceforward. I am not responsible for the publication, or arrangement of the former paper; the matter did not come under my supervision. JOSEPH SMITH [3]
In context, it seems clear that this statement is disavowing Joseph’s sanction for some of the recent previous editions of the T&S, the “former paper.” (As we have seen, neither Joseph or the Twelve were happy with how Hills and Robinson had been handling things.)
Joseph is here described as willing to endorse “all papers having my signature henceforward.” This seems more than an endorsement of individual articles, but rather newspaper(s) for which he is listed as the editor. The term “papers” does not mean “documents” in this context, it means newspapers published with Joseph as editor.
This issue of the paper also bore the note, “The Times and Seasons IS EDITED BY Joseph Smith.” [4]
1 April 1842 (T&S 3/11)
Times and Seasons contains an extensive editorial on “Try the spirits.” History of the Churchdenominates this as “The Prophet’s Editorial in the Times and Seasons.”[18] It is not signed in Joseph’s name, but as “Ed.”[19]
15 April 1842 (T&S 3/12)
Times and Seasons contains another editorial by Joseph on baptism for the dead [HC 4:595-599], again signed as “ED.”[20]
2 May 1842 (T&S 3/13)
Times and Seasons contains another editorial by Joseph on the temple, [HC 4:608-699] again signed only as “ED.”[21]
16 May 1842 (T&S 3/14)
Book of Abraham, continued.
1 June 1842 (T&S 3/15)
Report of Hyrum Smith discourse on Word of Wisdom, signed “Omega.”[56] Priest’s “American Antiquities” is also discussed by an unnamed author.[57]
15 June 1842 (T&S 3/16)
Times and Seasons contains editorial concerning the presence of Mosaic traits among the Aztec in Mexico, and uses this as an argument for the Book of Mormon (citing part of Ether). It is again signed, “ED.”
We have derived the subject of this plate from Baron Humbolt’s volume of (Researchers in Mexico), who found it painted on a manuscript book, made of the leaves of some kind of tree, suitable for the purpose….[extensive discussion of Aztec myth]
There are many things contained in the above that go to support the testimony of the Book of Mormon, as well as that of the Mosaic history. The Mexican records agree so well with the words of the book of Ether (found by the people of Limhi, which is contained in the Book of Mormon) in relation to the confounding of languages, that we insert the following: [Ether 1 quoted]
These accounts, then, precisely agree, one of which was found in Ontario county, N.Y., [i.e., the Book of Mormon plates] and the other in Mexico….The coincidence is so striking that further comment is unnecessary.[22]
Another editorial on the Holy Ghost is also signed “ED.”[23] History of the Church 5:26-31 attributes this to Joseph.
The author also speaks as “ED” when he writes of a letter to the editor:
“We publish the foregoing letter entire; and for the information of the citizens of the neighborhood where the circumstances transpired, take this opportunity of expressing our decided, unqualified disapprobation of the proceedings of William and Alford Young. If they have ever been united with this Church and are not cut off, we withdraw fellowship from them until they make satisfaction for what they have done….”[24]
It is difficult to see how anyone besides Joseph Smith who would unilaterally declare, “we withdraw fellowship from them.”
1 July 1842 (T&S 3/17)
Following an editorial signed by William Law, “Ed” again makes remarks about Nauvoo.[25]
Joseph addresses remarks on the John C. Bennett affair, noting that “It becomes my duty to lay before the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and the public generally, some important facts relative to the conduct and character of Dr. JOHN C. BENNETT….” Joseph signs his remarks with his full name–not surprisingly, since he is here acting in his role as Church president and civic official to “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and to all the honorable part of the community.”[26]
15 July 1842 (T&S 3/18)
Another editorial is again signed “ED,” on “the Government of God,” which History of the Church 5:65 attributes to Joseph. Immediately following, “ED” gives us an article on “American Antiquities,” discussing areas as diverse as Canada, the United States, Florida, the Mississippi, and Guatemala as providing evidence for the Book of Mormon. Specifically mentioned is Stephens and Catherwood’s book about Central American ruins. The final paragraph reads:
If men, in their researches into the history of this country, in noticing the mounds, fortifications, statues, architecture, implements of war, of husbandry, and ornaments of silver, brass, &c. were to examine the Book of Mormon, their conjectures would be removed, and their opinions altered; uncertainty and doubt would be changed into certainty and facts; and they would find that those things that they are anxiously prying into were matters of hisy would find their conjectures were more than realized — that a great and a mighty people had inhabited this continent — that the arts sciences and religion, had prevailed to a very great extent, and that there was as great and mighty cities on this continent as on the continent of Asia. Babylon, Ninevah, nor any of the ruins of the Levant could boast of more perfect sculpture, better architectural designs, and more imperishable ruins, than what are found on this continent. Stephens and Catherwood’s researches in Central America abundantly testify of this thing. The stupendous ruins, the elegant sculpture, and the magnificence of the ruins of Guatamala, and other cities, corroborate this statement, and show that a great and mighty people — men of great minds, clear intellect, bright genius, and comprehensive designs inhabited this continent. Their ruins speak of their greatness; the Book of Mormon unfolds their history. — ED. [27]
In this edition, Joseph also signs his name (with other leaders and apostles) about the disciplinary action taken against a Church member. This is a reproduction of a Church document, not something written as editor.[28]
1 August 1842 (T&S 3/19)
“ED” continues Joseph’s repudiation of John C. Bennett. Of note, we read “It may be asked why it was that we would countenance him so long after being apprised of his iniquities, and why he was not dealt with long ago. To this we would answer, that he has been dealt with from time to time; when he would acknowledge his iniquity, ask and pray for forgiveness, beg that he might not be exposed, on account of his mother, and other reasons, saying, he should be ruined and undone.”[29] This account relies on details of which only a very few were aware; of Joseph, John Taylor, and Wilford Woodruff, only Joseph had been present for all the sordid details.
15 August 1842 (T&S 3/20)
“ED” again speaks of Bennett and false accusations.[30]
1 September 1842 (T&S 3/21)
Articles labeled “Opinion” and “Persecution of the Prophets” appear with no byline.[31] “Baptism” follows by “ED.”[32]
15 September 1842 (T&S 3/22)
Extract From Stephen’s “Incidents of Travel in Central America” is published with commentary. There is no byline.[33] There is nothing from “ED,” though a letter to the Church signed by Joseph is included.[34]
1 October 1842 (T&S 3/23)
An unsigned article on “Zarahemla” again uses Stephens’ Central America as evidence for the Book of Mormon.[35] There is again nothing from “ED,” though another letter to the Church signed by Joseph appears.[36]
15 October 1842 (T&S 3/24)
“ED” makes is still absent, but “Es,” ["editors"?] makes a first-time appearance writing “To the Saints of God.” There is no letter or other communication from Joseph Smith by name, though “Es” discuss Joseph in the third person. While this could be a rhetorical move on Joseph’s part, it seems more likely that his assistants are penning this (Elders Woodruff and Taylor?). This is the only use of “Es” that I have noticed.[37]
1 November 1842 (T&S 3/25)
No edition.
15 November 1842 (T&S 4/1)
Joseph resigns editorial duties to John Taylor:
I beg leave to inform the subscribers of the Times and Seasons that it is impossible for me to fulfill the arduous duties of the editorial department any longer. The multiplicity of other business that daily devolves upon me renders it impossible for me to do justice to a paper so widely circulated as the Times and Seasons. I have appointed Elder John Taylor, who is less encumbered and fully competent to assume the responsibilities of that office, and I doubt not that he will give satisfaction to the patrons of the paper. As this number commences a new volume, it also commences his editorial career.
John Taylor wrote immediately thereafter:
The patrons of the Times and Seasons will unquestionably be painfully disappointed on reading the above announcement.
We know of no one so competent as President Joseph Smith to fill the editorial chair, of which the papers that have been issued since he has been editor are sufficient evidence.
We do not profess to be able to tread in the steps, nor to meet the expectation of the subscribers of this paper so fully as our able, learned and talented prophet, who is now retiring from the field; but as he has promised to us the privilege of referring to his writings, books, &c., together with his valuable counsel, when needed, and also to contribute to its columns with his pen when at leisure, we are in hopes that with his assistance, and other resources that we have at our command, that the Times and Seasons will continue to be a valuable periodical, and interesting to its numerous readers.
A discussion is also held of ruins in the Yucatan, by an unnamed author, who concludes only “Speculation upon the origin of these ruins I leave to others. The subject is one that should excite the deepest interest in the minds of Americans. It is as yet wrapped in profound mystery, which it will doubtless require many years of laborious research to unfold.’”[38]
The paper ends with a note that “The Times and Seasons IS EDITED BY JOHN TAYLOR. Printed and published about the first and fifteenth of every month…by JOHN TAYLOR & WILFORD WOODRUFF.”[39]
1 December 1842 (T&S 4/2)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
15 December 1842 (T&S 4/3)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
2 January 1842 (T&S 4/4)
For the first time since Joseph’s resignation as editor (that I can see–please indicate if I’ve missed some!), “ED” makes an aside following a letter from a correspondent.[43]
16 January 1842 (T&S 4/5)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
1 February 1843 (T&S 4/6)
“ED” appears after an article (“Ancient Poetry”), the first such use since Joseph’s resignation that I’ve found.[40]
15 February 1843 (T&S 4/7)
An aside after an article is made by “ED.”[48]
1 March 1843 (T&S 4/8)
“ED” makes a parenthetical comment in the midst of a long letter from a correspondent and another fairly brief aside.[41]
15 March 1843 (T&S 4/9)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet. A short aside is so labeled.[44]
1 April 1843 (T&S 4/10)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
15 April 1843 (T&S 4/11)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
1 May 1843 (T&S 4/12)
“ED” expresses condolences after publishing a letter announcing the death of an LDS Elder.[42]
15 May 1843 (T&S 4/13)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
1 June 1843 (T&S 4/14)
“ED” introduces an article on Judaism.[45]
15 June 1843 (T&S 4/15)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
1 July 1843 (T&S 4/16)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
15 July 1843 (T&S 4/17)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
1 August 1843 (T&S 4/18)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet.
15 August 1843 (T&S 4/19)
No article attributed to “ED” found yet. “Editor” inserts a parenthetical remark.[49]
1 September 1843 (T&S 4/20)
“ED” responds to an attack on Mormons in another newspaper.[50]
15 September 1843 (T&S 4/21)
“ED” comments on a letter to the editor.[51]
1 October 1843 (T&S 4/22)
An unsigned editorial reads:
We have lately perused with great interest, Stephen’s works on Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan.
Mr. Stephens published about two years ago, a very interesting work entitled ‘Incidents of travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan,’ in which he details very many interesting circumstances; discovered the ruins of magnificent cities, and form hieroglyphical representations, sculpture and rich specimens of architecture, proved one important fact, which had been disputed by many of our sages; that America had once been peopled by a highly polished, civilized and scientific race, with whom the present aborigines could not compare.
Since the publication of this work, Mr. Stephens has again visited Central America, in company with Mr. Catherwood, and other scientific gentlemen, for the purpose of making further explorations among those already interesting ruins. They took with them the Daguerreotype, and other apparatus, for the purpose of giving views and drawings of those mysterious relics of antiquity. His late travels and discoveries, have also been published in two volumes of the same size, entitled ‘Incidents of travel in Central America.’
It is a work of great interest, written with precision and accuracy. The plates are elegantly executed, and its history unfolds the ruins of grandeur, civilization and intelligence. It is published by Harper & Brothers, N. Y.
This is a work that ought to be in the hands of every Latter Day Saint; corroborating, as it does the history of the Book of Mormon. There is no stronger circumstantial evidence of the authenticity of the latter book, can be given, than that contained in Mr. Stephens’ works….
[I]t has fallen to his lot to explore the ruins of this once mighty people, but the ‘Book of Mormon’ unfolds their history; and published as it was, years before these discoveries were made, and giving as it does, accounts of a people, and of cities that bear a striking resemblance to those mentioned by Mr. Stephens, both in regard to magnificence and location, it affords the most indubitable testimony of the historical truth of that book, which has been treated so lightly by the literati and would be philosophers of the present age (emphasis added).[52]
It would seem hard to argue, then, that John Taylor had been corrected by Joseph on the matter of Stephens’ work in Central America, prior to being made editor.
15 October 1843 (T&S 4/23)
An uncredited editor indicates that he has both Joseph’s and the Twelve’s support for the newspaper’s publication thus far, noting that though a few issues have been late due to illness
Other than this we have no apologies to make, nor no painful reflections for what we have done, or left undone; nor have we any particular promises to make for the future. We have hitherto been governed by the plain principles of truth; it has been our endeavor to lay before our readers those principles which we thought would best conduse to their interest and to the good of the church in general….
We feel highly honored by, and very much obliged to our brethren the Twelve, for the kind interest which they have manifested in our behalf, in the following resolutions which were passed during our absence from home. It affords us pleasure to know that we are engaged in disseminating principles, and publishing a work which in their estimation is of so much importance to the church, and to the world, and we would embrace this opportunity of acknowledging to our brethren the many obligations we are under to them for the salutary counsel and assistance which we have so frequently received from them, which has aided us very materially in our arduous undertaking. We also feel obliged to our correspondents for their favors, and take this opportunity of soliciting a continuation of the; and though last, not least, are we indebted to our beloved brother JOSEPH, for his timely counsel, the access he has given us to his writings, and the many rich treats which have been furnished our readers through his instrumentality, without which, our sheet would in many instances have been comparatively dry and barren.[53]
1 November 1843 (T&S 4/24)
No remark by “Ed” found yet.
1 January 1844 (T&S 5/1)
“ED” explains the placement of some articles and provides commentary (p. 390), and prefaces a discussion of Amerindians ruins in Texas by writing:
Every day adds fresh testimony to the already accumulated evidence on the authenticity of the “Book of Mormon.” At the time that book was translated there was very little known about ruined cities and dilapidated buildings. The general presumption was, that no people possessing more intelligence than our present race of Indians had ever inhabited this continent, and the accounts given in the Book of Mormon concerning large cities and civilized people having inhabited this land, was generally disbelieved and pronounced a humbug. Priest, since then has thrown some light on this interesting subject. Stephens in his “Incidents of Travels in Central America,” has thrown in a flood of testimony, and from the following statements it is evident that the Book of Mormon does not give a more extensive account of large and populous cities than those discoveries now demonstrate to be even in existence.[46]
15 January 1844 (T&S 5/2)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
1 February 1844 (T&S 5/3)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
15 February 1844 (T&S 5/4)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
1 March 1844 (T&S 5/5)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
15 March 1844 (T&S 5/6)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
1 April 1844 (T&S 5/7)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
15 April 1844 (T&S 5/8)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
1 May 1844 (T&S 5/9)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
15 May 1844 (T&S 5/10)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
1 June 1844 (T&S 5/11)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
27 June 1844
Assassination of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. John Taylor severely wounded.
1 July 1844 (T&S 5/12)
No remark by “ED” found yet.
AFTER JOSEPH”S DEATH, I have only done electronic searches, and have not visually scanned the entire text as above.
15 November 1844
“ED” provides latitude and longitude in a short aside.[47]
15 Feb 1846
Last number of the Times and Seasons printed, prior to the exodus from Nauvoo to the west.

[1] Andrew Jenson, “Times and Seasons,” in Encyclopedic History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah, Printed by Deseret News Publishing Company, 1941), 875-876.

[2] History of the Church 4:542.

[3] Times and Seasons 3/9 (15 March 1842): 710.

[4] Times and Seasons 3/9 (15 March 1842): 718.

[5] “Valedictory,” Times and Seasons 4/1 (15 November 1842): 8.

[6] “Valedictory,” Times and Seasons 4/1 (15 November 1842): 8.

[7] Times and Seasons 3/6 (15 January 1842): 663.

[8] History of the Church 4:454.

[9] History of the Church 4:490.

[10] Michael Hicks, Mormonism and Music: A History, p.41

[11] Michael Hicks, Mormonism and Music: A History, p.42n34

[12] History of the Church 4:494-495.

[13] History of the Church 4:513-514.

[14] Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi, 250; citing Millennial Star (13 February 1864) 26:119.

[15] History of the Church 4:503.

[16] History of the Church 4:513

[17] History of the Church 4:548.

[18] History of the Church 4:571.

[19] Times and Seasons 3/11 (1 April 1842): 748.

[20] Times and Seasons 3/12 (15 April 1842): 761.

[21] Times and Seasons 3/13 (2 May 1842): 775.

[22] “Traits of the Mosaic History, Found Among the Azteca Nations,” Times and Seasons 3/16 (15 June 1842): 818-820.

[23] “Gift of the Holy Ghost,” Times and Seasons 3/16 (15 June 1842): 818-820.

[24] Times and Seasons 3/16 (15 June 1842): 822.

[25] Times and Seasons 3/17 (1 July 1842): 832.

[26] Times and Seasons 3/17 (1 July 1842): 839-842.

[27] “The Government of God,” Times and Seasons 3/18 (15 July 1842): 855-858; then “American Antiquities,” 858-860.

[28] “Dr. West and the Mormons,” Times and Seasons 3/18 (15 July 1842): 862.

[29] “John C. Bennett,” Times and Seasons 3/19 (1 August 1842): 868-869.

[30] “Persecution,” Times and Seasons 3/20 (15 August 1842): 886-890.

[31] “Opinion,” and “Persecution of the Prophets,” Times and Seasons 3/21 (1 September 1842): 901-903.

[32] “Baptism,” Times and Seasons 3/21 (1 September 1842): 903-905.

[33] Times and Seasons 3/22 (15 September 1842): 911-915, 921-923.

[34] Times and Seasons 3/22 (15 September 1842): 919-920. Reproduced as D&C 127, letter dated 1 September 1842.

[35] Times and Seasons 3/23 (1 October 1842): 927-928.

[36] Times and Seasons 3/23 (1 October 1842): 934-936. Reproduced as D&C 128, letter dated 6 September 1842.

[37] Times and Seasons 3/24 (15 October 1842): 951-

[38] TImes and Seasons 4/1 (15 November 1842): 15-16.

[39] Times and Seasons 4/1 (15 November 1842): 16.

[40] Times and Seasons 4/6 (1 February 1843): 81.

[41] Times and Seasons 4/8 (1 March 1843): 116, 117.

[42] Times and Seasons 4/12 (1 May 1843): 188.

[43] Times and Seasons 4/4 (2 January 1843): 59.

[44] Times and Seasons 4/9 (15 March 1843): 142-143.

[45] Times and Seasons 4/14 (1 June 1843): 220-221.

[46] Times and Seasons 5/1 (1 January 1844): 390.

[47] Times and Seasons 5/21 (15 November 1844):

[48] Times and Seasons 4/7 (15 February 1843): 105-106.

[49] Times and Seasons 4/19 (15 August 1843): 294.

[50] Times and Seasons 4/20 (1 September 1843): 306.

[51] Times and Seasons 4/21 (15 September 1843): 326.

[52] Times and Seasons 4/22 (1 October 1843): 346-347.

[53] Times and Seasons 4/23 (15 October 1843): 359.

[54] Times and Seasons 5/1 (1 November 1843)

[55] Andrew Jenson, “Thompson, Robert Blashel,” LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4 vols. (Salt Lake City, A. Jenson History Co., 1901-36) 1:253.

[56] Times and Seasons 3/15 (1 June 1842): 799-801.

[57] Times and Seasons 3/15 (1 June 1842): 813-814.